Sunday, 12 February 2012

individual assignment


NAME                           : NUR KHAIRIYAH BINTI MUNIT
METRIC NUMBER      : 2010852208
GROUP                         : J3BM1114C


1.0      Summary………………………………………………………. 3

2.0       Organizational Information ……………………………………………………………….. 4
2.1       Information Granularity ………………………………………. 4
3.0       Type of Value in Organizational Information ………………………………………………. 5
3.1       The Value of Transactional …………………………………………………….. 5
3.2       The Value of Analytical Information ……………………………………….. 8
3.3       The Value Timely Information ………………………………………………… 10
3.4       The Value of Quality Information ………………………………………. 11
4.0       The Cost of Poor Information …………………………………………………… 13
5.0       The Benefit of Good Information ……………………………………………………….. 14
6.0       References ……………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Organizational Information theory says the one of the goals of any organization is to take any vague and confusing information and make it make sense to those that don’t understand the message being presented. The members of these organizations do this thru a process of enactment, selection, and retention of information. When an organization is able to take information that is unclear to some and make it make sense to all, it has achieved its goal in its communication processing.

There are four types of value in organizational information which are transactional, analytical, timely and quality of information. Transactional information is all the information contained within a business unit. The primary purpose of transactional information is to support day-to-day operations of the unit. Examples of transactional information include: sales receipt, packing slip, purchase confirmation, etc. Therefore, transactional information is the result of performing daily operating tasks.

 Analytical information is used for managerial analysis and decision making. People who are higher up in the hierarchy of the company usually do not need all the details of transactional information. Whereas, timely information and quality information are the important things in organization to make sure that the organization’s goal achieved and success.


Information is everywhere in organization. Organizational information comes at different levels and in different formats and “granularities”. According to Pendse (2008), information needs vary with level in hierarchy. At higher levels, the information required is highly summarized, has higher granularity, lesser frequency of reporting, higher external content and needs to be accurate but need not be very precise.

Employees must be able to correlate he different levels, format and granularities of information when making decision. Successfully collecting, compiling, sorting, and finally analyzing information from multiple levels, exhibiting granularity can provide tremendous insight into how organization information can yield exciting and unexpected results such as potential new markets, new ways of reaching customers, and even new ways of doing business.

2.1 Information Granularities
                The granulation structures used by standard rough set theory and the corresponding approximation structures are reviewed. Hierarchical granulation and approximation structures are studied, which results in stratiļ¬ed rough set approximations.


3.1 The Value of Transactional Information
There are hundreds of transactions that go through organizations every day. The result of these transactions is transactional information. Transactional information is all the information contained with a business unit. The primary purpose of transactional information is to support day-to-day operations of the unit. Examples of transactional information include sales receipt, packing slip, purchase confirmation, etc.

 Organizations capture and store transactional information in databases, and they use it when performing operational tasks and repetitive decisions such as analyzing daily sales reports and production schedules to determine how much inventory to carry. Therefore, transactional information is the result of performing daily operating tasks.

Figure 1.0 1.1

3.2 The value of Analytical Information

                Analytical information encompasses all organizational information. Its purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks. It is also information that can be quantitative or qualitative and is used for decision making specifically decisions and tasks of managers.
                Analytical information includes transactional information along with other information such as market and industry information. There are many examples of analytical information, such as trends, sales, product statistics, and future growth projections. The sample of analytical information can be shown at Figure 1.2 and Figure 1.3 below.
                Analytical information can be the first step to becoming one of the many analyzing tools that managers and executives use to make decision.
Analyzing tools that use analytical information:
·         Technique used to divide information set into mutually exclusive groups that the members of each group as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible.
·         Frequently used to segment customer information for customer relationship management systems to help organizations identify customers with similar behavior traits.

·         Analyzes information from websites and checkouts and manipulates.
·         Useful for forecast how much inventories the organization may need or may not need.
·         Market basket analysis gives clues as to what a customer might have bought if the idea had occurred to them.

·         Similar to Market Basket Analysis but uses the information obtained from a customer online to find out what the customer likes.
·         Useful because creates more revenue and sell more product.
Figure 1.2

Figure 1.3

3.3 The Value Timely Information
                The need for timely information can change for each business decision. Some decision requires weekly or monthly information while other decisions require daily information. Timeliness is an aspect of information that depends on the situation. In some industries, information that is a few days or weeks old can be relevant while in other industries information that is a few minutes old can be almost worthless.

·        Real-time information is defined as immediate, up-to-date information
·        Many organizations use real-time systems to exploit key corporate transactional information.
·        With Real-time information, the information must also need to be timely in the sense that it meets employee needs.
·        The growing demand for real-time information stems from organizations’ need to make faster and more effective decisions, keep smaller inventories, operate more efficiently, and track performance more carefully.
·        If employee can absorb information only an hourly or daily basis, there is no need to gather real-time information in smaller increments.
·        Most people request real-time information without understanding the continual change which is the one of the biggest pitfalls associated with real-time information.
·        The timeliness of the information required must be evaluated for each business decision. Organizations do not want to find themselves using real-time information to make a bad decision later.

3.4 The value of Quality Information
                Information from the organization must show the best quality for its customers as to look good image to them. Business decisions are only as good as the quality of the information used to make the decision in organization.
                Westpac Financial Services (WFS), one of the four major banks in Australia serves millions of customers from its many core systems, each with its own database. The database maintains information and provides users with easy access to the stored information. Unfortunately, the company failed to develop information-capturing standards, which led to inconsistent organizational information. WFS had to solve its information quality problems immediately if it was to remain competitive. Customer service ratings are on the rise for WFS now that the company can operate its business with a single and comprehensive view of each one of its customers.
                There are five characteristics common high quality of information which are accuracy, completeness, consistency, uniqueness, and timeliness.
1)      Accuracy:
·         Are all the values correct? For example, is the name spelled correctly? Is the dollar amount recorded properly?

2)      Completeness:
·         Are any of the values missing? For example, is the address complete including street, city, state, and zip code?

3)      Consistency:
·         Is aggregate or summary information in agreement with detailed information? For example, do all total fields equal to the true total of individual fields?

4)      Uniqueness:
·         Is each transaction, entity, and event represented only once in the information? For example, are there any duplicate customers?

5)      Timeliness:
·         Is the information current with respect to the business requirements? For example, is information updated weekly, daily, or hourly?
Figure 1.4: Low quality of data information
Figure 1.5: High quality of data information
Poor data quality often has a greater effect on companies than they realize. In most cases, the costs associated with poor data quality are not only ignored but subsumed into the overall category of the cost of doing business. Bad information can cause serious business ramifications such as:

                High quality information can significantly improve the chances of making a good decision and directly increase an organization’s bottom line. High quality information does not automatically guarantee that every decision made is going to be a good one, since people ultimately make decision. However, such information confirms that the basis of the decisions is accurate. The success of the organization depends on appreciating and leveraging the true value of timely and high quality information.


Baltzan, P., Philips, A., & Haag, S. (2006). Business driven technology. (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Hungerford, M. Defining information quality. (p. 24). Retrieved from
O'Brien, J., & Marakas, G. (2008). Introduction to Information System. (14 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Pendse, P. H. (2008). Business analysis. (p. 26). New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Ptd Ltd.

Thursday, 19 January 2012

MDeC, University of Malaya, Cisco to Create ICT specialists for Malaysian SMEs Kuala Lumpur, 24

KUALA LUMPUR, 24 AUGUST 2009 – Two young Malaysia-based entrepreneurs have won awards for the design and build of their multi-touch screen called Smart Surface. 

Smart Surface’s co-founders, Faysal Abdulaziz (managing director) and Homam Alghorani (executive director) said the product was envisioned during their student days at APIIT (Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology), where they became interested in multi-touch technology and related natural computer interfacing. 

The first prototype was designed and built at the beginning of 2009 when, in February, an entrepreneur offered the two aforementioned developers to co-form a company and fund their research, said Abdulaziz. 

“Smart Surface is completely designed and built in Malaysia,” said Abdulaziz, who added that the product was launched commercially in May 2009, during the 20th ITEX09 [International Invention, Innovation and Technology Exhibition] exhibition held in Kuala Lumpur. 

During ITEX09, which was organised by MINDS (Malaysian, Invention & Design Society) and the ministry of science, technology and innovation, the product won two awards for Best Invention – Corporate Category, and the ITEX Gold Medal Award. 

Pioneering use of the LCD screen
The company focuses on research and development of in-house multi-touch hardware and software solutions, said Abdulaziz. “As far as we know, another Malaysian provider of a similar product, Kreateevee, uses rear projection technology for display with diffused infra-red (IR) illumination for movement detection.” 

“We do use this technology in some of our early models, but we also are the pioneers in exploring the use of the LCD screen for display technology, instead of rear-projection, as well as LASER [light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation] detection technology, instead of IR illumination,” he said. “Therefore, Smart Surface is the only company that has a full range of multi-touch and surface computer application technologies [rear-projection, LCD display, LASER recognition technology, tabletop and vertical walls].” 

“Smart Surface has already been in commercial use by many companies,” he added. “That means we are technologically ahead in term of solving the many problems associated with any commercial use of the product. For example, for rear-projection technology, we achieved a tabletop display size ratio to the external dimensions of the top of the table of almost 1:1.” 

Future plans
“It is noteworthy that some of our clients, such as British American Tobacco and Cool Merchant Connections had already approached other local companies that offered multi-touch technology,” he added. “However, they opted to use Smart Surface products after they compared all technological aspects.” 

Regarding future developments, he said: “We have already spoken with APIIT for cooperation through internships for students who will learn firsthand about our multi-touch technology and its applications. This will enrich the academic field of multi-touch research in Malaysia.” 

“We also have ongoing discussions with the Centre for Research & Innovation Management at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, for possible cooperation on developing suitable applications for them,” said Abdulaziz.

World Wide Web Domination Win is Malaysia's Gain

Limkokwing University of Creative Technology

World Wide Web Domination Win is Malaysia’s Gain
The award-winning website team does it again and every time they score on the international stage they bring glory not only to the world’s creativity University but also to Malaysia for online creativity and innovation.
The young creators of the Limkokwing official website, World Wide Web Domination (W3D), is on the roll again by taking home 18 international awards over the last two months, probably the only university web in the country to do so with such regularity.
The awards are all the more significant because they are from established US-based organisations known for their high standards and criteria.
The judges who are industry professionals picked the Limkokwing University website based on design, innovation content, technology, interactivity, copywriting and functionality, and the awards are a testimony that clearly reflects Malaysia’s sophistication for producing outstanding multimedia products and services.

Young, talented and savvy

W3D is dominated by dedicated team players who are all alumni below 30 years of age and for them winning is all in a day’s to come up with some amazing stuff.
Along the way, these young men and women have placed the country on the same pedestal as world-class names such as DreamWorks, Paramount, Levi’s, Walt Disney, Nissan, Pizza Hut, FIAT, Hewlett-Packard, Alcatel Lucent, Mattel, Pepsi, MTV, Samsung, Yahoo! among other distinguished brands.
W3D comes under the able command of Dato’ Timothy Lim Kok Wing Jr who is a computer wizard in his own right. Working closely with the University Founder President, Timothy handles the day-to-day management of the outfit, which also includes conceptualization, content creation and direction of the creative team.

Winning streak

Since 2009, Limkokwing University has won 30 more international awards again proving that Malaysia has the talents, resources and professionalism to create great online work of international standards.
Recently, the World Wide Web Domination again proved that have what it takes to be an award-winning web team when they won two Outstanding Achievement Awards under the Education category in the 2011 Interactive Media Awards (IMA) for the Limkokwing Community Portal and iPhone Applications.
The second highest honour bestowed by IMA, it was based on specific criteria: design, content, feature functionality, usability and standards compliance and cross-browser compatibility. The Limkokwing Community Portal and iPhone Applications received an overall score of 464 from a maximum of 500 points.

Worldwide hit

The University’ official website is probably the such portal in Malaysia or in the world to register over 200 million hits annually from 220 countries and territories worldwide, or one that is yet to be matched by others.
This amazing achievement is again to the credit of the Limkokwing web team that is fast changing the landscape of the online skyline through their passion and creativity to excel in the field, and bring home more international awards so it may also be Malaysia’ gain too.
With more than 40 international awards showcasing their performance since 2009, the World Wide Web Domination is already strategising yet another global award, soon.